These companies accounted for a major share of the global capnography equipment market in Growth in the rapid microbiology testing market can be attributed to factors such as the rising prevalence of infectious diseases; ongoing technological advancements; increasing food safety concerns; increased funding, research grants, and public-private investments; and increasing awareness about rapid microbiology testing.
These anti-thrombotic complexes are further dispersed in a polymer matrix which may further comprise a drug. Such approaches create a heterogeneous matrix of a drug and a hydrophilic species of heparin in which the hydrophilic species attract water before and after the implantation to adverse the stability and release kinetics of the drug.
In addition, the desired anti-thrombotic functions of heparin and similar agent should be preferably located on the surface, not being eluted away from the surface of a coated medical device. There remains a need for a coating material that can satisfy the requirements described above for applying on at least one surface of a medical device and can be prepared through a process that is compatible with the sensitive pharmaceutical or therapeutic agents impregnated in the coatings.
This helps to fill a need for a coating that treats both restenosis and prevents thrombosis when applied to the outer surface of a stent. The present invention provides a conjugate between a heparin and a bioabsorbable polymer with a free carboxyl end group.
In addition, a method is provided for applying a coating comprising a heparin bioabsorbable polymer conjugate to at least a portion of an implantable device to prevent or reduce the formation of thrombosis on the surface of the device. The outmost layer of the coating comprises a conjugate which prevents the formation of thrombosis, and also serves to modulate the release kinetics of the agent s contained within an inner layer s of the coating.
A first or sub-layer of the coating is prepared by mixing a polymeric material and a biologically active agent with a solvent, thereby forming a homogeneous solution. The polymeric material can be selected from a wide range of synthetic materials, but a poly lactide-co-glycolide PLGA can be preferred.
The biologically active agent is selected depending on the desired therapeutic results. Once prepared, the solution can be applied to the device through a dipping or spraying process. During drying, the solvent evaporates, and a thin layer of the polymeric material loaded with the biologically active agent is left coated over the stent.
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The coating is not limited to just one inner layer or biologically active agent per layer. It is contemplated that one or more distinct biologically active agents may be included in each layer or that more than one inner layer may be loaded with a biologically active agent, or both.
The second or outer layer comprises an anti-thrombotic heparin-bioabsorbable polymer conjugate. This coating may be applied over the inner drug-containing layers using, for example, a dip coating or spray coating process.
The outer layer can comprise an anti-thrombotic heparin-bioabsorbable polymer conjugate which may be dissolved in a mixed solvent system comprising ethyl acetate EA and isopropanol IPA. The solution is then sprayed onto the surface of the device that has already been coated with the agent-containing layer as described above.
After drying, the anti-thrombotic heparin bioabsorbable polymer conjugate remains in the outer layer of the coating, allowing agent from the inner layer to elute through the coating. The coated device is inserted into an afflicted area of a body, for example, a vessel like the coronary artery, using an appropriate procedure that depends on the properties of the device.
Once in place, the device will hold the vessel open. The biologically active agent will be released from the first layer, thereby providing the desired therapeutic result, such as inhibiting smooth cell proliferation.
The anti-thrombotic heparin-bioabsorbable polymer conjugate in the outmost layer becomes partially hydrated and prevents blood coagulation on and around the device, thus inhibiting thrombosis and subacute device thrombosis. In addition, the anti-thrombotic heparin-bioabsorbable polymer conjugate in the outmost layer may additionally reduce or prevent the burst release of the biologically active agent from the inner drug containing layer, thereby allowing the release to occur over a relatively extended period of time.
One or more layers of polymeric compositions are applied to a medical device to provide a coating thereto.BOXED WARNING. Cardiovascular Thrombotic Events · Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) cause an increased risk of serious cardiovascular thrombotic events, including myocardial infarction and stroke, which can be fatal.
Within the vascular endothelium, NO enhances vasodilatation, reduces platelet aggression and adhesion (anti-thrombotic), prevents smooth muscle proliferation, inhibits adhesion of leukocytes and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines genes (anti-inflammatory), and counters the oxidation of low density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol.
widely used anti-thrombotic molecule and common assay control). In similar separation studies, different types of sulphated polysaccharides have been obtained from visceral.
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Reliable venous access is a cornerstone of safe and effective care of hospitalized patients. Spurred by technological advances, several venous access devices (VADs) for use during and beyond hospitalization are available to meet this need.