Salisbury Police have declared a knife attack on a shopping centre cleaner in suburban Adelaide a "cowardly" and "appalling" major crime. A cleaner at the Parabanks Shopping Centre in her 30s was attacked on Monday night and has had significant surgery on serious facial and back injuries. Detective Inspector Billy Thompson said the fact that South Australian police are devoting so many resources to the investigation indicated their concern. Police said the motive for the attack is unclear.
With institutional and legal machinery at their disposal, agents of the State can compel populations to conform to codes and can opt to punish or attempt to reform those who do not conform.
Authorities employ various mechanisms to regulate encouraging or discouraging certain behaviors in general. Governing or administering agencies may for example codify rules into laws, police citizens and visitors to ensure that they comply with those laws, and implement other policies and practices that legislators or administrators have prescribed with the aim of discouraging or preventing crime.
In addition, authorities provide remedies and sanctionsand collectively these constitute a criminal justice system. Legal sanctions vary widely in their severity; they may include for example incarceration of temporary character aimed at reforming the convict.
Some jurisdictions have penal codes written to inflict permanent harsh punishments: Usually, a natural person perpetrates a crime, but legal persons may also commit crimes. Conversely, at least under U. When Quinney states "crime is a social phenomenon" he envisages both how individuals conceive crime and how populations perceive it, based on societal norms.
It was probably brought to England as Old French crimne 12th century form of Modern French crimefrom Latin crimen in the genitive case: In Latin, crimen could have signified any one of the following: The word may derive from the Latin cernere — "to decide, to sift" see crisismapped on Kairos and Chronos.
Tucker suggests a root in " cry " words and refers to English plaintplaintiffand so on.
The meaning "offense punishable by law" dates from the late 14th century. The Latin word is glossed in Old English by facen, also "deceit, fraud, treachery", [cf.
Crime wave is first attested in in American English. Definition England and Wales Whether a given act or omission constitutes a crime does not depend on the nature of that act or omission.
It depends on the nature of the legal consequences that may follow it. The expression "crime" means, in England and Ireland, any felony or the offence of uttering false or counterfeit coin, or of possessing counterfeit gold or silver coin, or the offence of obtaining goods or money by false pretencesor the offence of conspiracy to defraudor any misdemeanour under the fifty-eighth section of the Larceny Act, Scotland For the purpose of section of the Trade Union and Labour Relations Consolidation Acta crime means an offence punishable on indictmentor an offence punishable on summary convictionand for the commission of which the offender is liable under the statute making the offence punishable to be imprisoned either absolutely or at the discretion of the court as an alternative for some other punishment.
This approach considers the complex realities surrounding the concept of crime and seeks to understand how changing socialpoliticalpsychologicaland economic conditions may affect changing definitions of crime and the form of the legal, law-enforcementand penal responses made by society. These structural realities remain fluid and often contentious.
All such adjustments to crime statisticsallied with the experience of people in their everyday lives, shape attitudes on the extent to which the State should use law or social engineering to enforce or encourage any particular social norm. Behaviour can be controlled and influenced by a society in many ways without having to resort to the criminal justice system.
Other definitions Legislatures can pass laws called mala prohibita that define crimes against social norms. These laws vary from time to time and from place to place: Other crimes, called mala in secount as outlawed in almost all societies, murdertheft and rapefor example.
English criminal law and the related criminal law of Commonwealth countries can define offences that the courts alone have developed over the years, without any actual legislation: The courts used the concept of malum in se to develop various common law offences.
Criminalization The spiked heads of executed criminals once adorned the gatehouse of the medieval London Bridge.
One can view criminalization as a procedure deployed by society as a preemptive harm-reduction device, using the threat of punishment as a deterrent to anyone proposing to engage in the behavior causing harm.
The State becomes involved because governing entities can become convinced that the costs of not criminalizing through allowing the harms to continue unabated outweigh the costs of criminalizing it restricting individual libertyfor example, to minimize harm to others.
States control the process of criminalization because: Even if victims recognize their own role as victims, they may not have the resources to investigate and seek legal redress for the injuries suffered: The victims may only want compensation for the injuries suffered, while remaining indifferent to a possible desire for deterrence.
Even in policed societies, fear may inhibit from reporting incidents or from co-operating in a trial. Victims, on their own, may lack the economies of scale that could allow them to administer a penal system, let alone to collect any fines levied by a court. As a result of the crime, victims may die or become incapacitated.
Labelling theory Further information: Those who apply the labels of "crime" or "criminal" intend to assert the hegemony of a dominant population, or to reflect a consensus of condemnation for the identified behavior and to justify any punishments prescribed by the State in the event that standard processing tries and convicts an accused person of a crime.
Natural-law theory Justifying the State's use of force to coerce compliance with its laws has proven a consistent theoretical problem. One of the earliest justifications involved the theory of natural law.
This posits that the nature of the world or of human beings underlies the standards of morality or constructs them.Go into bold new territory with TV's favorite squad of detectives! Set in L.A., Major Crimes picks up where The Closer leaves off, centering on how to secure an airtight conviction, and exploring how police and prosecutors work together to build a case.
Major Crimes is an American police procedural starring Mary McDonnell on the TNT network. A spin-off of The Closer, Major Crimes follows the activities of the LAPD Major Crimes squad, charged with solving high-profile crimes in the city of Los Angeles, along with the members of the squad.
Aug 13, · Watch video · In addition to running the show, Raydor helps guide and protect her teenage charge, a witness in a horrific crime, who finds a safe refuge among members of the major-case squad.
Written by writermaia/10(K). A Marine Corps sergeant major was indicted on hate crime and assault charges following an attack on a server at an Iraqi restaurant. Crime in Toronto has been relatively low in comparison to other major cities.
A ranking of 60 cities by The Economist ranked Toronto as the fourth safest major city in the world, and the safest major city in North America..
For comparisons to various cities in North America, in for example, the homicide rate for the city of Toronto was per , people, yet for Atlanta ( A MAN who slashed the face of a cleaner at Parabanks Shopping Centre remains on the run, and police have declared the vicious random attack a major crime.
The cleaner, a year-old woman.