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I was intrigued by the undeniable fact that a single load recipe can work so well across many different rifles, with different barrel lengths, diameters, and bedding methods. I started reading everything I could get my hands on regarding barrel vibration and Final paper com 425 internal ballistics of a rifle during the firing event.
The singular thing that I could not get past was that a simple harmonic vibration pattern could not explain the fact that a single load could work with so many different rifles. I am a radio communications electronics engineer by profession, and deal with resonance and vibration all the time with antennas and other circuits.
It is physically impossible for all the different rifles to have exactly the same harmonic pattern with relation to the bullet exit time. I am compulsive in the fact that I HAVE to have a clear model and theory of why something works before being comfortable with it.
I do bow to expediency often, and just use a process or a machine without questioning how it works, but for anything that I am trying to understand and improve on, I have to have a good model. Observations and the Resultant Questions So, I started thinking about other possible reasons for the dispersion of shots within a string.
During literally thousands of very careful load charge and seating depth experiments, some notable things were observed: The velocity deviation of a load would varied VERY quickly as the seating depth was changed.
Optimum loads work across multiple rifles, with different length barrels. Keep in mind these were not single three shot groups, but typically 2 or more groups of 5 shots each at each load condition to validate the measurement.
When I looked a keeping the load constant and changing the seating depth, I saw the same very quick changes in dispersion.
As little as 0. The velocity deviation changed rapidly as well. I often observed a reverse correlation between velocity deviation and groups size during these experiments, where loads producing good groups had a high standard deviation of velocity, and vice versa.
Here is what drove me nuts for weeks: A charge change of 0. The change to the groups, on the other hand, was dramatic. Harmonic Resonance Theory — Does it Fit? The first theory is the possibility that the bending modes of the barrel are getting excited differently each shot. Upon further thought, I concluded that this is not possible, based on the following reasoning.
Even if you look at higher order modes, such as the 5th harmonic mode, you are still between to Hz. Keep in mind these modes are in reality definitely NOT simple beam bending modes, but have a lot of twisting and elongation going on at the same time as well, a very complex situation.
If the dispersion was due to these beam bending modes, then it should be fairly insensitive to small changes in charge and seating depth. Also, changing the barrel mass distribution even a little will completely change the node position, and therefore make it impossible for a universal OCW load to exist.
Therefore, I concluded that the sensitivity to small changes was not from changes in the bending modes. I can explain this better using an RF engineering analogue. The pressure pulse is quite fast, reaching max pressure in around 0. All of this happens in well under 0. The mass of the barrel precludes this very fast excitation from getting to the muzzle in any significant amount.
This filtering makes the muzzle position very insensitive to the charge and seating depth. However, since it ruled out the bending modes out as an explanation for the variation in dispersion and velocity deviation, I was still left with no model for these observations.
Epiphany Two things came together for me at about the same time, making a unified model possible. First, I read on one of the shooting forums a post from a benchrest fellow about a barrel that he had that was his best ever shooter. He had slugged the barrel, and found that the muzzle was just ever so slightly smaller than the rest of the bore, on the order of one or two ten-thousandths as I recall.ashrae.
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JCECE Previous Year Question Paper AVAILABLE HERE!!! Download Last year solved JCECE Engineering Previous Year Question Papers PDF through this single page. Shock Wave Theory – Rifle Internal Ballistics, Longitudinal Shock Waves, and Shot Dispersion Introduction.
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