The Government is divided into three branches:
Ecuador during its long and turbulent history has lost most of its contested territories to each of its more powerful neighbors, such as Colombia in andBrazil in through a series of peaceful treaties, and Peru after a short war in which the Protocol of Rio de Janeiro was signed in It was common knowledge among the top officers of the liberation army from the south that their leader San Martin wished to liberate present-day Ecuador and add it to the future republic of Peru, since it had been part of the Inca Empire before the Spaniards conquered it.
Historic documents repeatedly stated that San Martin told Bolivar he came to Guayaquil to liberate the land of the Incas from Spain. Bolivar countered by sending a message from Guayaquil welcoming San Martin and his troops to Colombian soil.
These areas were included as part of the territory of Gran Colombia by Bolivar in December 17,during the Congress of Angostura when the Republic of Gran Colombia was created.
Tumbes declared itself independent from Spain on January 17,and Jaen de Bracamoros on June 17,without any outside help from revolutionary armies. However, that same year,Peruvian forces participating in the Trujillo revolution occupied both Jaen and Tumbes. Some Peruvian generals, without any legal titles backing An overview of ecuador up and with Ecuador still federated with the Gran Colombia, had the desire to annex Ecuador to the Republic of Peru at the expense of the Gran Colombia, An overview of ecuador that Ecuador was once part of the Inca Empire.
On July 28,Peruvian independence was proclaimed in Lima by the Liberator San Martin and Tumbes and Jaen which were included as part of the revolution of Trujillo by the Peruvian occupying force, had the whole region swear allegiance to the new Peruvian flag and incorporated itself into Peru, even though Peru was not completely liberated from Spain.
After Peru was completely liberated from Spain by the patriot armies led by Bolivar and Antonio Jose de Sucre at the Battle of Ayacucho dated December 9,there was a strong desire by some Peruvians to resurrect the Inca Empire and to include Bolivia and Ecuador.
Gran Colombia had always protested Peru for the return of Jaen and Tumbes for almost a decade, then finally Bolivar after long and futile discussion over the return of Jaen, Tumbes, and part of Mainas, declared war.
Through protocolized meetings between representatives of Peru and Gran Colombia, the border was set as Tumbes river in the west and in the east the Maranon and Amazon rivers were to be followed toward Brazil as the most natural borders between them.
However, what was pending was whether the new border around the Jaen region should follow the Chinchipe river or the Huancabamba river. The dissolution of Gran Colombia Map of the former Gran Colombia in named in its time as Colombiathe Gran Colombia covered all the colored region.
Moreover, the Cauca region throughout its long history had very strong economic and cultural ties with the people of Ecuador. In five months, New Granada defeated Ecuador due to the fact that the majority of the Ecuadorian Armed Forces were composed of rebellious angry unpaid veterans from Venezuela and Colombia that did not want to fight against their fellow countrymen.
Seeing that his officers were rebelling, mutinying, and changing sides, President Flores had no option but to reluctantly make peace with New Granada. Struggle for possession of the Amazon Basin South America During colonial times this was to halt the ever-expanding Portuguese settlements into Spanish domains, which were left vacant and in disorder after the expulsion of Jesuit missionaries from their bases along the Amazon Basin.
Ecuador countered by labeling the Cedula of an ecclesiastical instrument, which had nothing to do with political borders. Peru began its de facto occupation of disputed Amazonian territories, after it signed a secret peace treaty in favor of Brazil.
This treaty disregarded Spanish rights that were confirmed during colonial times by a Spanish-Portuguese treaty over the Amazon regarding territories held by illegal Portuguese settlers. Peru began occupying the defenseless missionary villages in the Mainas or Maynas region which it began calling Loreto with its capital in Iquitos.
During its negotiations with Brazil, Peru stated that based on the royal cedula ofit claimed Amazonian Basin territories up to Caqueta River in the north and toward the Andes Mountain range, depriving Ecuador and Colombia of all their claims to the Amazon Basin.
Colombia protested stating that its claims extended south toward the Napo and Amazon Rivers. Peru ignored these protests and created the Department of Loreto in with its capital in Iquitos which it had recently invaded and systematically began to occupy using the river systems in all the territories claimed by both Colombia and Ecuador.
Peru briefly occupied Guayaquil again insince Peru thought that Ecuador was selling some of the disputed land for development to British bond holders, but returned Guayaquil after a few months. The border dispute was then submitted to Spain for arbitration from tobut to no avail.
In the early part of the 20th century Ecuador made an effort to peacefully define its eastern Amazonian borders with its neighbours through negotiation. Ecuador protested this secret treaty, since Colombia gave away Ecuadorian claimed land to Peru that Ecuador had given to Colombia in In July 21, the Ponce-Castro Oyanguren Protocol was signed between Ecuador and Peru where both agreed to hold direct negotiations and to resolve the dispute in an equitable manner and to submit the differing points of the dispute to the United States for arbitration.
Negotiations between the Ecuadorian and Peruvian representatives began in Washington on September 30, These negotiations were long and tiresome. Both sides logically presented their cases, but no one seemed to give up their claims.
Then on February 6,Ecuador presented a transactional line which Peru rejected the next day. The negotiations turned into intense arguments during the next 7 months and finally on September 29, the Peruvian representatives decided to break off the negotiations without submitting the dispute to arbitration because the direct negotiations were going nowhere.
Four years later inamid fast-growing tensions within disputed territories around the Zarumilla River, war broke out with Peru.
In Julytroops were mobilized in both countries. Peru had an army of 11, troops who faced a poorly supplied and inadequately armed Ecuadorian force of 2, of which only 1, were deployed in the southern provinces.
Hostilities erupted on July 5,when Peruvian forces crossed the Zarumilla river at several locations, testing the strength and resolve of the Ecuadorian border troops.
Finally, on July 23,the Peruvians launched a major invasion, crossing the Zarumilla river in force and advancing into the Ecuadorian province of El Oro. Map of Ecuadorian Land Claims after During the course of the Ecuadorian—Peruvian WarPeru gained control over part of the disputed territory and some parts of the province of El Oro, and some parts of the province of Lojademanding that the Ecuadorian government give up its territorial claims.
The Peruvian Navy blocked the port of Guayaquilalmost cutting all supplies to the Ecuadorian troops. After a few weeks of war and under pressure by the United States and several Latin American nations, all fighting came to a stop.Share your videos with friends, family, and the world.
Ecuador is a patchwork of indigenous communities, including people of colonial Spanish origins and the descendants of African slaves. Its capital, Quito, once a part of the Inca empire, has some of the best-preserved early colonial architecture on the continent.
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