Pollution started from prehistoric timeswhen man created the first fires. According to a article in the journal Science, " soot " found on ceilings of prehistoric caves provides ample evidence of the high levels of pollution that was associated with inadequate ventilation of open fires. Core samples of glaciers in Greenland indicate increases in pollution associated with Greek, Roman, and Chinese metal production.
Chapter 43Air and Water Pollution: Environmental pollution has many facets, and the resultant health risks include diseases in almost all organ systems.
Thus, a chapter on air and water pollution control links with chapters on, for instance, diarrheal diseases chapter 19respiratory diseases in children and adults chapters 25 and 35cancers chapter 29neurological disorders chapter 32and cardiovascular disease chapter 33as well as with a number of chapters dealing with health care issues.
Nature, Causes, and Burden of Air and Water Pollution Each pollutant has its own health risk profile, which makes summarizing all relevant information into a short chapter difficult.
Nevertheless, public health practitioners and decision makers in developing countries need to be aware of the potential health risks caused by air and water pollution and to know where to find the more detailed information required to handle a specific situation.
This chapter will not repeat the discussion about indoor air pollution caused by biomass burning chapter 42 and water pollution caused by poor sanitation at the household level chapter 41but it will focus on the problems caused by air and water pollution at the community, country, and global levels.
Estimates indicate that the proportion of the global burden of disease associated with environmental pollution hazards ranges from 23 percent WHO to 30 percent Smith, Corvalan, and Kjellstrom These estimates include infectious diseases related to drinking water, sanitation, and food hygiene; respiratory diseases related to severe indoor air pollution from biomass burning; and vectorborne diseases with a major environmental component, such as malaria.
These three types of diseases each contribute approximately 6 percent to the updated estimate of the global burden of disease WHO These numbers may look small, but the contribution from most risk factors other than the "top 10" is within the 0.
Because of space limitations, this chapter can give only selected examples of air and water pollution health concerns. Clearly, disease control measures for people working in or living around a smelter may be quite different from those for people living near a tannery or a brewery.
For detailed information about industry-specific pollution control methods, see the Web sites of industry sector organizations, relevant international trade union organizations, and the organizations listed above.
Air Pollution Air pollutants are usually classified into suspended particulate matter PM dusts, fumes, mists, and smokes ; gaseous pollutants gases and vapors ; and odors. Suspended PM can be categorized according to total suspended particles: Much of the secondary pollutants PM2.
Types of suspended PM include diesel exhaust particles; coal fly ash; wood smoke; mineral dusts, such as coal, asbestos, limestone, and cement; metal dusts and fumes; acid mists for example, sulfuric acid ; and pesticide mists.
Gaseous pollutants include sulfur compounds such as SO2 and sulfur trioxide; carbon monoxide; nitrogen compounds such as nitric oxide, NO2, and ammonia; organic compounds such as hydrocarbons; volatile organic compounds; polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and halogen derivatives such as aldehydes; and odorous substances.
Volatile organic compounds are released from burning fuel gasoline, oil, coal, wood, charcoal, natural gas, and so on ; solvents; paints; glues; and other products commonly used at work or at home.
Volatile organic compounds include such chemicals as benzene, toluene, methylene chloride, and methyl chloroform. Emissions of nitrogen oxides and hydrocarbons react with sunlight to eventually form another secondary pollutant, ozone, at ground level.
Ozone at this level creates health concerns, unlike ozone in the upper atmosphere, which occurs naturally and protects life by filtering out ultraviolet radiation from the sun. Sources of Outdoor Air Pollution Outdoor air pollution is caused mainly by the combustion of petroleum products or coal by motor vehicles, industry, and power stations.
In some countries, the combustion of wood or agricultural waste is another major source. Pollution can also originate from industrial processes that involve dust formation for example, from cement factories and metal smelters or gas releases for instance, from chemicals production.
Indoor sources also contribute to outdoor air pollution, and in heavily populated areas, the contribution from indoor sources can create extremely high levels of outdoor air pollution. Motor vehicles emit PM, nitric oxide and NO2 together referred to as NOxcarbon monoxide, organic compounds, and lead.The most important environmental issues Malaysia is facing are represented by air pollution from industrial and vehicular emissions, water pollution from raw sewage, deforestation, smoke from Indonesian forest fires.
Air Topics. Learn how air pollution can harm your health and the environment and what EPA is doing to protect the air we breathe. Effects of Pollution.
Regulatory Information by Topic: Air; EPA Offices and Programs. Office of Air and Radiation; Air, Climate, and Energy Research Program. Essay on Environmental Pollution: Causes, Effects and Solution. Category: These pollutants contaminates the environment. It has a hazardous effect on the natural world and on the activities of living beings.
nitrogen fertilizers and insecticides contaminate both air and water.
Contamination of water. Read More on This Topic. conservation: Pollution. Great efforts are made to limit the release of harmful substances into the environment through air pollution control, wastewater treatment, solid-waste management, hazardous-waste management, and recycling. Unfortunately.
Sep 14, · AIR POLLUTION Air pollution is the introduction into the atmosphere of chemicals, particulates, or biological materials that cause discomfort, disease, or death to humans, damage other living organisms such as food crops, or damage the natural environment or built environment.
Air pollution is a real public health and environmental problem that can lead to among other things global warming, acid rain, and the deterioration of the ozone layer. This chart names some common pollutants, their sources, and their effect on the environment.