Instead, Rosecrans met the full fury of Bragg's troops at Chickamauga Creek, an Indian name meaning "River of Blood" on September 19 and 20,resulting in over 37, casualties between the two armies. The Union Army fled back to Chattanooga while the Confederates laid siege to the city. Thomas who collected the remnants of the army's right wing and made his stand on Snodgrass Hill which saved the remainder of the Union army from destruction during its retreat.
Each narrative of western settlement is rooted in a "legacy of conquest" Limerick informing the text, and exposing this legacy demands recovering lost texts and rereading familiar works within their ideological contexts. Nowhere is this challenge more complex—or more rewarding—than in reading Willa Cather, a writer simultaneously celebrated for her depiction of pioneers and respected for her historical authenticity.
The bounty from this garden has been sampled often in the last decade and a half. Mike Fischer has unearthed the "burden of imperialism" in Cather's pioneer texts; Joseph Urgo has considered Cather's acceptance of America's imperial stance; and Deborah Karush has discussed the "nostalgic vision" with which Cather viewed the frontier.
These studies demonstrate the veracity and continuing vitality of Guy Reynolds's assertion that "Cather's novels fictionalize the transfer of European empires to America and the subsequent growth of American empire" I argue in particular that with the Great War as its immediate subtext, this novel reaches back to the closing years of the American frontier and the influx of European immigrants to the Plains states, projecting an image of the nation and legitimizing its status as "European" power.
Like the openings to Daniel Defoe's Robinson Crusoe and Nathaniel Hawthorne's The Scarlet Letter, it operates as a narrative of transmission establishing a fictionalized origin for the text. The most obvious effect of the introduction is the distance it establishes between Cather and her story.
In the opening pages, an unnamed female narrator credits Jim Burden, a childhood acquaintance, for writing the tale.
By making Jim "legal counsel for one of the great Western railways" xCather complicates his perspective through its association to the controversial role the railroad played in Indian-white relations, western settlement patterns, and resource exploitation.
The introduction situates the production of Jim's manuscript in the immediate presentsynchronous to the novel's actual composition. Written as the First World War ravaged Europe and cast as the reminiscence of middle-aged Jim Burden, it is a "prehistory" reconstructing the s and early s from the verge of America's entrance into the Great War.
Cather further complicates the account by making its teller a rural Nebraskan turned successful New York attorney and infusing the memory of his prairie childhood with a wholehearted acceptance of progress the Yankee credo and a fair share of romantic yearning: As for Jim, no disappointments have been severe enough to chill his naturally romantic and ardent disposition.
This disposition, though it often made him seem very funny when he was a boy, has been one of the strongest elements in his success.
He loves with a personal passion the great country through which his railway runs and branches. His faith in it and his knowledge of it have played an important part in its development. He is always able to raise capital for new enterprises in Wyoming or Montana, and has helped young men out there to do remarkable things in mines and timber and oil.
If a young man with an idea can once get Jim Burden's attention, can manage to accompany him when he goes off into the wilds hunting for lost parks or exploring new canyons, then the money which means action is usually forthcoming. Jim is still able to lose himself in those big Western dreams.
Notwithstanding the "naturally romantic" character attributed to James Quayle Burden, the "big Western dreams" in which he loses himself equal not innocent adventure but economic conquest: Although they do not figure explicitly in the novel, the history and culture of the Plains Indians form a palimpsest occasionally—and tellingly—exposed in the text, especially when considering the impact federal policies like the Homestead and Pacific Railroad acts and the Dawes Act had upon the original inhabitants of Nebraska.
Equally significant are suggestive allusions in the novel to Spain's presence in North America.
Such rhetoric and imagery hints to America's wresting the mantle of empire from Spain in the Spanish-American War and suggest that, in addition to absorbing Spain's colonial holdings in the Caribbean and Pacific, the United States has inherited Spanish obligations in Europe.
In other words, within the pastoral and nostalgic account ascribed to Jim, Cather traces the United States' cultural heritage and its rise to global power—a genealogy suggesting that America has a duty, as de facto European state, to participate in the Great War.
Among the vanguard in questioning Jim's reliability as a narrator is Susan J. Rosowski, who asserts in The Voyage Perilous: Jim's initial observation about the rolling grasslands reveals the superficial understanding of Plains history Cather imposes on him.
On the ride from the train station in Black Hawk to his grandparents' homestead, the orphaned traveler peers from the wagon bed into the dark night and concludes, "There seemed to be nothing to see; no fences, no creeks or trees, no hills or fields.
If there was a road, I could not make it out in the faint starlight. There was nothing but land: No, there was nothing but land" 7, italics added. In subtle strokes, Jim Burden erases the inhabitants preexisting the arrival of European settlers from his memoir.
The black night, which he suggestively labels "utter darkness" 5 and later "empty darkness" 7functions like a geopolitical tabula rasa, an ideological blackboard with the previous record wiped clean and awaiting the next lesson to be inscribed.
Jim's language echoes a common sentiment in American literature and political ideology: On one level his reflections about the prairie's barrenness suggest the youthful ignorance of a ten year old on his inaugural visit to the Plains.
Yet beneath this childish observation lurks the willful blindness that Cather writes into the adult narrating this episode. Deborah Karush notes that Cather's novels promote a "fantasy of unrestrained expansion" by using child narrators to impart nostalgic accounts of "the frontier as a vast, empty space.
Jim's reflections certainly fit this pattern. He specifically equates the emptiness of the prairie landscape to its lack of infrastructure and agrarian development. Progress requires improvement to the land: As a railroad attorney, his career would entail what Patricia Nelson Limerick cleverly calls "the drawing of lines and the marking of borders" Mockasin Telegraph In the book “The Moccasin Telegraph”, the natives have many conflicts with white people.
Through out the book there are many disputes between the natives and music aptitude Early is the best time to start children with an enriched musical background.
For a week in June the Oglala Lakota hosted the Oceti Sakowin to discuss several issues of national importance, 1 especially the ongoing exploitation of Lakota spirituality.
At this meeting, participants drafted a statement in resolution form (Lakota Summit V Resolution). - Native American Conflicts and Wars Native American conflicts and wars were the struggles between the native people and white people for the rich lands that became the United States.
The savage battles provide the background for many exciting stories and legends about frontier life and the nation's development. In the book The Moccasin Telegraph, the natives have many conflicts with white people.
Through out the book there are many disputes between the natives and white groups, some examples, the CBC workers, the government and the RCMP.
Feb 11, · This suggests that the explanation for the division is not white racism, but rather the lack of a common culture that would allow different groups to share anything . Compilation of Periodical Literature: Genealogy Cluster Record Groups 15, 28, 29, 49, 59, 85, , , , , "'I will write you a few lines': World War I Letters of the Greenlee Family".