Study Guide What are hackers? Hackers are people who try to gain unauthorised access to your computer. You can protect yourself from these by using a firewall and a good up-to-date anti-virus program. You would normally get such a backdoor program by opening an E-mail attachment containing the backdoor program.
Bruce Sterlingauthor of The Hacker Crackdown In computer security, a hacker is someone who focuses on security mechanisms of computer and network systems. While including those who endeavor to strengthen such mechanisms, it is more often used by the mass media and popular culture to refer to those who seek access despite these security measures.
Nevertheless, parts of the subculture see their aim in correcting security problems and use the word in a positive sense. White hat is the name given to ethical computer hackers, who utilize hacking in a helpful way. White hats are becoming a necessary part of the information security field.
Accordingly, the term bears strong connotations that are favorable or pejorative, depending on the context. The subculture around such hackers is termed network hacker subculture, hacker scene, or computer underground.
It initially developed in the context of phreaking during the s and the microcomputer BBS scene of the s. It is implicated with The Hacker Quarterly and the alt. Inan article in the August issue of Psychology Today with commentary by Philip Zimbardo used the term "hacker" in its title: It was an excerpt from a Stanford Bulletin Board discussion on the addictive nature of computer use.
CLU is the software he uses for this. Byhacking in the sense of breaking computer security had already been in use as computer jargon,  but there was no public awareness about such activities. Pressured by media coverage, congressman Dan Glickman called for an investigation and began work on new laws against computer hacking.
House of Representatives on September 26,about the dangers of computer hacking, and six bills concerning computer crime were introduced in the House that year.
Use of the term hacker meaning computer criminal was also advanced by the title "Stalking the Wily Hacker", an article by Clifford Stoll in the May issue of the Communications of the ACM.
Later that year, the release by Robert Tappan Morris, Jr. Classifications Several subgroups of the computer underground with different attitudes use different terms to demarcate themselves from each other, or try to exclude some specific group with whom they do not agree.
Yet, those people see themselves as hackers and even try to include the views of Raymond in what they see as a wider hacker culture, a view that Raymond has harshly rejected. In contrast to Raymond, they usually reserve the term cracker for more malicious activity.
According to Ralph D.
Clifford, a cracker or cracking is to "gain unauthorized access to a computer in order to commit another crime such as destroying information contained in that system".
White hat A white hat hacker breaks security for non-malicious reasons, either to test their own security system, perform penetration tests or vulnerability assessments for a client - or while working for a security company which makes security software.
The term is generally synonymous with ethical hackerand the EC-Council,  among others, have developed certifications, courseware, classes, and online training covering the diverse arena of ethical hacking. Black hat A "black hat" hacker is a hacker who "violates computer security for little reason beyond maliciousness or for personal gain" Moore, Grey hat A grey hat hacker lies between a black hat and a white hat hacker.
A grey hat hacker may surf the Internet and hack into a computer system for the sole purpose of notifying the administrator that their system has a security defect, for example. They may then offer to correct the defect for a fee. Even though grey hat hackers may not necessarily perform hacking for their personal gain, unauthorized access to a system can be considered illegal and unethical.
Elite hacker A social status among hackers, elite is used to describe the most skilled. Newly discovered exploits circulate among these hackers.
Elite groups such as Masters of Deception conferred a kind of credibility on their members. Neophyte A neophyte " newbie ", or "noob" is someone who is new to hacking or phreaking and has almost no knowledge or experience of the workings of technology and hacking.
Microsoft also uses the term BlueHat to represent a series of security briefing events. Hacktivism can be divided into two main groups: Nation state Intelligence agencies and cyberwarfare operatives of nation states."We will work with companies, private analysts, hackers, governments—whoever can provide the data that we need," a spokesperson of Intrusion Truth told Motherboard via email.
China has hacked its way to the second largest economy in the world. mous, but the costs incurred by computer criminals Just as important, hackers insist that ‘hacker’ is a term of respect, which can be conferred only by other hackers The first thorough discussion of an ethical code for hackers appears in Steven Levy’s .
Hackers are Criminals and Do Not Provide a Service Today the media paint a mixed picture for the public concerning the role hacker's play in our society.
On the one hand they praise the skill hackers display when breaking into secure networks and wreaking havoc with clever viruses. It's very erroneous to think of hackers as criminals--that's not the case.
or is he just playing around? The hacker phenomenon keeps raising in my mind the question of whether or not. Hacker groups became popular in the early s, providing access to hacking information and resources and a place to learn from other members.
Computer bulletin board systems (BBSs), such as the Utopias, provided platforms for information-sharing via dial-up modem. Hackers could also gain credibility by being affiliated with elite groups. Criminals: When bank robber Willie Sutton was asked why he robbed banks, he replied: "That’s where the money is." Stored data or "data at rest" is more profitable to steal than data moving over the Internet.
Pacific Bell had to have more than 60, customers change their passwords after hackers stole them. What constitutes hacking.